Introduction

This is an example of a data processing pipeline for bulk Elemental Analyser Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS) carbon isotope measurements. It can be downloaded as a template (or just to see the plain-text code) by following the Source link above. Knitting for stand-alone data analysis works best to HTML rather than the website rendering you see here. To make this formatting change simply delete line #6 in the template file (the line that says rmarkdown::html_vignette:).

Note that all code chunks that contain a critical step towards the final data (i.e. do more than visualization or a data summary) are marked with (*) in the header to make it easier to follow all key steps during interactive use.

This example was run using isoreader version 1.3.0 and isoprocessor version 0.6.11. If you want to reproduce the example, please make sure that you have these or newer versions of both packages installed:

# restart your R session (this command only works in RStudio)
.rs.restartR()

# installs the development tools package if not yet installed
if(!requireNamespace("devtools", quietly = TRUE)) install.packages("devtools") 

# installs the newest version of isoreader and isoprocessor
devtools::install_github("isoverse/isoreader")
devtools::install_github("isoverse/isoprocessor")

Load packages

library(tidyverse) # general data wrangling and plotting
library(isoreader) # reading the raw data files
library(isoprocessor) # processing the data

Load data

Read raw data files (*)

# set file path(s) to data files, folders or rds collections 
# can be multiple folders or mix of folders and files, using example data set here
data_path <- iso_get_processor_example("ea_irms_example_carbon.cf.rds")

# read files
iso_files_raw <- 
  # path to data files
  data_path %>% 
  # read data files in parallel for fast read
  iso_read_continuous_flow() %>%
  # filter out files with read errors (e.g. from aborted analysis)
  iso_filter_files_with_problems()
#> Info: preparing to read 1 data files (all will be cached)...
#> Info: reading file 'ea_irms_example_carbon.cf.rds' with '.cf.rds' reader...
#> Info: loaded 121 data files from R Data Storage
#> Info: finished reading 1 files in 0.46 secs
#> Info: removing 0/121 files that have any error (keeping 121)

Process file info & peak table (*)

Peak Table

# process peak table
iso_files_w_peak_table <- iso_files_raw %>% 
  # set peak table from vendor data table
  iso_set_peak_table_automatically_from_vendor_data_table() %>% 
  # convert units from mV to V for amplitudes and area
  iso_convert_peak_table_units(V = mV, Vs = mVs) 
#> Info: setting peak table for 121 file(s) from vendor data table with the following renames:
#> - for 121 file(s): 'Nr.'->'peak_nr', 'Is Ref.?'->'is_ref', 'Start'->'rt_start', 'Rt'->'rt', 'End'->'rt_end', 'Ampl 28'->'amp28', 'Ampl 29'->'amp29', 'Ampl 30'->'amp30', 'Ampl 44'->'amp44', 'Ampl 45'->'amp45', 'Ampl 46'->'amp46', 'BGD 28'->'bgrd28_start', 'BGD 29'->'bgrd29_start', 'BGD 30'->'bgrd30_start', 'BGD 44'->'bgrd44_start', 'BGD 45'->'bgrd45_start', 'BGD 46'->'bgrd46_start', 'BGD 28'->'bgrd28_end', 'BGD 29'->'bgrd29_end', 'BGD 30'->'bgrd30_end', 'BGD 44'->'bgrd44_end', 'BGD 45'->'bgrd45_end', 'BGD 46'->'bgrd46_end', 'rIntensity 28'->'area28', 'rIntensity 29'->'area29', 'rIntensity 30'->'area30', 'rIntensity 44'->'area44', 'rIntensity 45'->'area45', 'rIntensity 46'->'area46', 'rR 29N2/28N2'->'r29/28', 'rR 45CO2/44CO2'->'r45/44', 'rR 46CO2/44CO2'->'r46/44', 'rd 29N2/28N2'->'rd29/28', 'rd 45CO2/44CO2'->'rd45/44', 'rd 46CO2/44CO2'->'rd46/44', 'd 29N2/28N2'->'d29/28', 'd 45CO2/44CO2'->'d45/44', 'd 46CO2/44CO2'->'d46/44', 'd 15N/14N'->'d15N', 'd 13C/12C'->'d13C', 'd 18O/16O'->'d18O', 'd 17O/16O'->'d17O', 'AT% 15N/14N'->'at15N', 'AT% 13C/12C'->'at13C', 'AT% 18O/16O'->'at18O'
#> Info: converting peak table column units where applicable from 'mV'->'V' and 'mVs'->'Vs' for columns matching 'everything()'

File Info

# process file information
iso_files_w_file_info <- iso_files_w_peak_table %>% 
  # rename key file info columns
  iso_rename_file_info(
    id1 = `Identifier 1`, id2 = `Identifier 2`, prep = Preparation,
    seq_nr = Row, analysis = Analysis
  ) %>% 
  # parse text info into numbers
  iso_parse_file_info(number = c(seq_nr, analysis)) %>% 
  # process specific sequence file information
  iso_mutate_file_info(
    # what is the type of each analysis?
    type = case_when(
      id1 == "empty"      ~ "empty",
      id1 == "blank"      ~ "blank",
      prep == "lin.std"   ~ "linearity",
      prep == "drift.std" ~ "drift",
      id1 == "pugel"      ~ "scale1",
      id1 == "EDTA2"      ~ "scale2",
      TRUE                ~ "sample"
    ),
    # what is the mass of the sample?
    mass = parse_number(id2) %>% iso_double_with_units("ug"),
    # what folder are the data files in? (usually folder = sequence)
    folder = basename(dirname(file_path))
  ) %>% 
  # focus only on the relevant file info, discarding the rest
  iso_select_file_info(folder, analysis, seq_nr, file_datetime, id1, id2, type, mass)
#> Info: renaming the following file info across 121 data file(s): 'Identifier 1'->'id1', 'Identifier 2'->'id2', 'Preparation'->'prep', 'Row'->'seq_nr', 'Analysis'->'analysis'
#> Info: parsing 2 file info columns for 121 data file(s):
#>  - to number: 'seq_nr', 'analysis'
#> Info: mutating file info for 121 data file(s)
#> Info: selecting/renaming the following file info across 121 data file(s): 'folder', 'analysis', 'seq_nr', 'file_datetime', 'id1', 'id2', 'type', 'mass'

File Filter

# filter out files we don't want to process futher
iso_files_without_empty <- iso_files_w_file_info %>% 
  # filter out emptys at the beginning of the run
  iso_filter_files(type != "empty") 
#> Info: applying file filter, keeping 118 of 121 files

Peak Mapping

# identify peaks
peak_map <- 
  tibble::tribble(
    ~compound,     ~ref_nr, ~rt,
    # peak map data (row-by-row)
    "CO2 analyte", NA,        300,
    "CO2 ref",          1,      415,
    "CO2 ref",          2,      465
  )
peak_map %>% knitr::kable(digits = 0)
compound ref_nr rt
CO2 analyte NA 300
CO2 ref 1 415
CO2 ref 2 465

iso_files_w_mapped_peaks <- iso_files_without_empty %>% iso_map_peaks(peak_map)
#> Info: 354 of 707 peaks in 118 files were successfully mapped using a single peak map. 353 peak(s) could not be mapped.

# show first few rows of the peak mappings summary (unmapped peaks = N2)
iso_files_w_mapped_peaks %>% 
  iso_summarize_peak_mappings() %>% 
  head(10) %>% 
  knitr::kable()
file_id mapped ambiguous missing peak_info
19602__blank_0.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (186.2), CO2 analyte (304.7), CO2 ref (427.2), CO2 ref (477.1)
19603__acn1_44.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.8), CO2 analyte (304.1), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19604__EDTA2_70.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.5), CO2 analyte (303.9), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19605__pugel_73.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.5), CO2 analyte (304.1), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19606__acn1_9.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (157.4), CO2 analyte (304.7), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19607__acn1_22.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.3), CO2 analyte (303.9), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19608__acn1_30.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.8), CO2 analyte (304.1), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19609__acn1_39.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.3), CO2 analyte (303.5), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19610__acn1_47.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.8), CO2 analyte (303.7), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)
19611__acn1_62.dxf 3/6 0/3 0/3 ?? (58.94), ?? (108.7), ?? (156.1), CO2 analyte (303), CO2 ref (427.4), CO2 ref (477.1)

# assign final collection of iso_files to a simpler name
iso_files <- iso_files_w_mapped_peaks

Show file information

# display file information
iso_files %>% 
  iso_get_file_info() %>% 
  iso_make_units_explicit() %>% 
  knitr::kable()
#> Info: aggregating file info from 118 data file(s)
file_id folder analysis seq_nr file_datetime id1 id2 type mass [ug]
19602__blank_0.dxf 190625_EA_data 19602 4 2019-06-25 15:51:45 blank 0 blank 0
19603__acn1_44.dxf 190625_EA_data 19603 5 2019-06-25 16:01:29 acn1 44 drift 44
19604__EDTA2_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19604 6 2019-06-25 16:11:14 EDTA2 70 scale2 70
19605__pugel_73.dxf 190625_EA_data 19605 7 2019-06-25 16:20:59 pugel 73 scale1 73
19606__acn1_9.dxf 190625_EA_data 19606 8 2019-06-25 16:30:44 acn1 9 linearity 9
19607__acn1_22.dxf 190625_EA_data 19607 9 2019-06-25 16:40:28 acn1 22 linearity 22
19608__acn1_30.dxf 190625_EA_data 19608 10 2019-06-25 16:50:13 acn1 30 linearity 30
19609__acn1_39.dxf 190625_EA_data 19609 11 2019-06-25 16:59:57 acn1 39 linearity 39
19610__acn1_47.dxf 190625_EA_data 19610 12 2019-06-25 17:09:45 acn1 47 linearity 47
19611__acn1_62.dxf 190625_EA_data 19611 13 2019-06-25 17:19:34 acn1 62 linearity 62
19612__acn1_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19612 14 2019-06-25 17:29:19 acn1 70 linearity 70
19613__acn1_79.dxf 190625_EA_data 19613 15 2019-06-25 17:39:23 acn1 79 linearity 79
19614__acn1_93.dxf 190625_EA_data 19614 16 2019-06-25 17:49:07 acn1 93 linearity 93
19615__acn1_114.dxf 190625_EA_data 19615 17 2019-06-25 17:58:52 acn1 114 linearity 114
19616__EDTA2_74.dxf 190625_EA_data 19616 18 2019-06-25 18:08:36 EDTA2 74 scale2 74
19617__acn1_45.dxf 190625_EA_data 19617 19 2019-06-25 18:18:20 acn1 45 drift 45
19618__3-1_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19618 20 2019-06-25 18:28:05 3-1 81 sample 81
19619__3-2_65.dxf 190625_EA_data 19619 21 2019-06-25 18:39:47 3-2 65 sample 65
19620__3-3_79.dxf 190625_EA_data 19620 22 2019-06-25 18:49:32 3-3 79 sample 79
19621__3-4_91.dxf 190625_EA_data 19621 23 2019-06-25 18:59:16 3-4 91 sample 91
19622__3-5_92.dxf 190625_EA_data 19622 24 2019-06-25 19:09:01 3-5 92 sample 92
19623__3-6_111.dxf 190625_EA_data 19623 25 2019-06-25 19:18:45 3-6 111 sample 111
19624__acn1_44.dxf 190625_EA_data 19624 26 2019-06-25 19:28:29 acn1 44 drift 44
19625__EDTA2_71.dxf 190625_EA_data 19625 27 2019-06-25 19:38:14 EDTA2 71 scale2 71
19626__3-7_89.dxf 190625_EA_data 19626 28 2019-06-25 19:47:59 3-7 89 sample 89
19627__3-8_90.dxf 190625_EA_data 19627 29 2019-06-25 19:57:43 3-8 90 sample 90
19628__3-9_90.dxf 190625_EA_data 19628 30 2019-06-25 20:07:27 3-9 90 sample 90
19629__3-10_100.dxf 190625_EA_data 19629 31 2019-06-25 20:17:12 3-10 100 sample 100
19630__3-11_68.dxf 190625_EA_data 19630 32 2019-06-25 20:26:56 3-11 68 sample 68
19631__3-12_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19631 33 2019-06-25 20:36:45 3-12 81 sample 81
19632__acn1_44.dxf 190625_EA_data 19632 34 2019-06-25 20:46:29 acn1 44 drift 44
19633__pugel_69.dxf 190625_EA_data 19633 35 2019-06-25 20:56:13 pugel 69 scale1 69
19634__EDTA2_73.dxf 190625_EA_data 19634 36 2019-06-25 21:05:58 EDTA2 73 scale2 73
19635__3-13_85.dxf 190625_EA_data 19635 37 2019-06-25 21:15:42 3-13 85 sample 85
19636__3-14_52.dxf 190625_EA_data 19636 38 2019-06-25 21:25:27 3-14 52 sample 52
19637__3-15_42.dxf 190625_EA_data 19637 39 2019-06-25 21:35:11 3-15 42 sample 42
19638__3-16_85.dxf 190625_EA_data 19638 40 2019-06-25 21:44:55 3-16 85 sample 85
19639__3-17_109.dxf 190625_EA_data 19639 41 2019-06-25 21:55:21 3-17 109 sample 109
19640__3-18_102.dxf 190625_EA_data 19640 42 2019-06-25 22:05:05 3-18 102 sample 102
19641__acn1_45.dxf 190625_EA_data 19641 43 2019-06-25 22:14:49 acn1 45 drift 45
19642__EDTA_74.dxf 190625_EA_data 19642 44 2019-06-25 22:24:34 EDTA 74 sample 74
19643__3-19_92.dxf 190625_EA_data 19643 45 2019-06-25 22:34:18 3-19 92 sample 92
19644__blank_0.dxf 190625_EA_data 19644 46 2019-06-25 22:44:03 blank 0 blank 0
19645__3-20_82.dxf 190625_EA_data 19645 47 2019-06-25 22:53:47 3-20 82 sample 82
19646__3-21_98.dxf 190625_EA_data 19646 48 2019-06-25 23:03:32 3-21 98 sample 98
19647__3-22_71.dxf 190625_EA_data 19647 49 2019-06-25 23:13:16 3-22 71 sample 71
19648__3-23_74.dxf 190625_EA_data 19648 50 2019-06-25 23:23:00 3-23 74 sample 74
19649__acn1_44.dxf 190625_EA_data 19649 51 2019-06-25 23:32:45 acn1 44 drift 44
19650__EDTA2_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19650 52 2019-06-25 23:42:29 EDTA2 70 scale2 70
19651__3-24_59.dxf 190625_EA_data 19651 53 2019-06-25 23:52:13 3-24 59 sample 59
19652__3-25_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19652 54 2019-06-26 00:01:59 3-25 81 sample 81
19653__3-26_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19653 55 2019-06-26 00:11:43 3-26 81 sample 81
19654__3-27_69.dxf 190625_EA_data 19654 56 2019-06-26 00:21:27 3-27 69 sample 69
19655__3-28_97.dxf 190625_EA_data 19655 57 2019-06-26 00:31:12 3-28 97 sample 97
19656__3-29_90.dxf 190625_EA_data 19656 58 2019-06-26 00:40:56 3-29 90 sample 90
19657__act1_43.dxf 190625_EA_data 19657 59 2019-06-26 00:56:06 act1 43 drift 43
19658__EDTA2_72.dxf 190625_EA_data 19658 60 2019-06-26 01:05:50 EDTA2 72 scale2 72
19659__3-30_88.dxf 190625_EA_data 19659 61 2019-06-26 01:15:35 3-30 88 sample 88
19660__3-31_88.dxf 190625_EA_data 19660 62 2019-06-26 01:25:19 3-31 88 sample 88
19661__3-32_61.dxf 190625_EA_data 19661 63 2019-06-26 01:35:03 3-32 61 sample 61
19662__3-33_76.dxf 190625_EA_data 19662 64 2019-06-26 01:44:48 3-33 76 sample 76
19663__3-34_78.dxf 190625_EA_data 19663 65 2019-06-26 01:54:32 3-34 78 sample 78
19664__3-35_99.dxf 190625_EA_data 19664 66 2019-06-26 02:04:17 3-35 99 sample 99
19665__act1_45.dxf 190625_EA_data 19665 67 2019-06-26 02:14:01 act1 45 drift 45
19666__EDTA2_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19666 68 2019-06-26 02:23:45 EDTA2 70 scale2 70
19667__3-36_53.dxf 190625_EA_data 19667 69 2019-06-26 02:33:30 3-36 53 sample 53
19668__3-40_96.dxf 190625_EA_data 19668 70 2019-06-26 02:43:15 3-40 96 sample 96
19669__3-41_80.dxf 190625_EA_data 19669 71 2019-06-26 02:53:00 3-41 80 sample 80
19670__3-42_95.dxf 190625_EA_data 19670 72 2019-06-26 03:02:44 3-42 95 sample 95
19671__3-43_106.dxf 190625_EA_data 19671 73 2019-06-26 03:12:29 3-43 106 sample 106
19672__3-44_114.dxf 190625_EA_data 19672 74 2019-06-26 03:22:13 3-44 114 sample 114
19673__act1_48.dxf 190625_EA_data 19673 75 2019-06-26 03:31:58 act1 48 drift 48
19674__EDTA2_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19674 76 2019-06-26 03:41:42 EDTA2 70 scale2 70
19675__3-45_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19675 77 2019-06-26 03:51:27 3-45 81 sample 81
19676__3-46_77.dxf 190625_EA_data 19676 78 2019-06-26 04:01:11 3-46 77 sample 77
19677__3-47_67.dxf 190625_EA_data 19677 79 2019-06-26 04:10:55 3-47 67 sample 67
19678__blank_0.dxf 190625_EA_data 19678 80 2019-06-26 04:20:40 blank 0 blank 0
19679__3-53_87.dxf 190625_EA_data 19679 81 2019-06-26 04:30:24 3-53 87 sample 87
19680__3-56_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19680 82 2019-06-26 04:40:09 3-56 81 sample 81
19681__act1_47.dxf 190625_EA_data 19681 83 2019-06-26 04:49:53 act1 47 drift 47
19682__EDTA2_73.dxf 190625_EA_data 19682 84 2019-06-26 04:59:37 EDTA2 73 scale2 73
19683__3-59_72.dxf 190625_EA_data 19683 85 2019-06-26 05:09:22 3-59 72 sample 72
19684__4-4_89.dxf 190625_EA_data 19684 86 2019-06-26 05:19:07 4-4 89 sample 89
19685__4-5_97.dxf 190625_EA_data 19685 87 2019-06-26 05:28:52 4-5 97 sample 97
19686__4-6_84.dxf 190625_EA_data 19686 88 2019-06-26 05:38:36 4-6 84 sample 84
19687__4-7_104.dxf 190625_EA_data 19687 89 2019-06-26 05:48:20 4-7 104 sample 104
19688__4-8_74.dxf 190625_EA_data 19688 90 2019-06-26 05:58:05 4-8 74 sample 74
19689__act1_44.dxf 190625_EA_data 19689 91 2019-06-26 06:07:49 act1 44 drift 44
19690__pugel_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19690 92 2019-06-26 06:17:34 pugel 70 scale1 70
19691__EDTA2_71.dxf 190625_EA_data 19691 93 2019-06-26 06:27:18 EDTA2 71 scale2 71
19692__4-9_87.dxf 190625_EA_data 19692 94 2019-06-26 06:37:03 4-9 87 sample 87
19693__4-10_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19693 95 2019-06-26 06:46:47 4-10 70 sample 70
19694__4-11_63.dxf 190625_EA_data 19694 96 2019-06-26 06:56:31 4-11 63 sample 63
19695__4-12_56.dxf 190625_EA_data 19695 97 2019-06-26 07:06:16 4-12 56 sample 56
19696__4-16_76.dxf 190625_EA_data 19696 98 2019-06-26 07:16:00 4-16 76 sample 76
19697__4-17_92.dxf 190625_EA_data 19697 99 2019-06-26 07:25:45 4-17 92 sample 92
19698__act1_48.dxf 190625_EA_data 19698 100 2019-06-26 07:35:29 act1 48 drift 48
19699__EDTA2_71.dxf 190625_EA_data 19699 101 2019-06-26 07:45:14 EDTA2 71 scale2 71
19700__4-18_63.dxf 190625_EA_data 19700 102 2019-06-26 07:54:58 4-18 63 sample 63
19701__4-19_89.dxf 190625_EA_data 19701 103 2019-06-26 08:04:43 4-19 89 sample 89
19702__4-20_83.dxf 190625_EA_data 19702 104 2019-06-26 08:14:27 4-20 83 sample 83
19703__4-21_106.dxf 190625_EA_data 19703 105 2019-06-26 08:24:12 4-21 106 sample 106
19704__4-22_59.dxf 190625_EA_data 19704 106 2019-06-26 08:33:56 4-22 59 sample 59
19705__4-23_58.dxf 190625_EA_data 19705 107 2019-06-26 08:43:41 4-23 58 sample 58
19706__act1_48.dxf 190625_EA_data 19706 108 2019-06-26 08:53:26 act1 48 drift 48
19707__EDTA2_70.dxf 190625_EA_data 19707 109 2019-06-26 09:03:10 EDTA2 70 scale2 70
19708__4-24_69.dxf 190625_EA_data 19708 110 2019-06-26 09:12:55 4-24 69 sample 69
19709__4-29_79.dxf 190625_EA_data 19709 111 2019-06-26 09:22:40 4-29 79 sample 79
19710__4-30_62.dxf 190625_EA_data 19710 112 2019-06-26 09:32:57 4-30 62 sample 62
19711__4-32_81.dxf 190625_EA_data 19711 113 2019-06-26 09:42:42 4-32 81 sample 81
19712__4-33_78.dxf 190625_EA_data 19712 114 2019-06-26 09:52:26 4-33 78 sample 78
19713__4-35_55.dxf 190625_EA_data 19713 115 2019-06-26 10:02:11 4-35 55 sample 55
19714__act1_48.dxf 190625_EA_data 19714 116 2019-06-26 10:11:55 act1 48 drift 48
19715__EDTA2_73.dxf 190625_EA_data 19715 117 2019-06-26 10:21:39 EDTA2 73 scale2 73
19716__4-36_59.dxf 190625_EA_data 19716 118 2019-06-26 10:31:24 4-36 59 sample 59
19717__4-41_55.dxf 190625_EA_data 19717 119 2019-06-26 10:41:08 4-41 55 sample 55
19718__4-42_80.dxf 190625_EA_data 19718 120 2019-06-26 10:50:53 4-42 80 sample 80
19719__4-47_57.dxf 190625_EA_data 19719 121 2019-06-26 11:00:37 4-47 57 sample 57

Example chromatograms

# plot the chromatograms
iso_files %>% 
  # select a few analyses to show
  iso_filter_files(analysis %in% c(19642, 19656, 19681)) %>% 
  # introduce a label column for coloring the lines
  iso_mutate_file_info(label = sprintf("#%d: %s (%s)", analysis, id1, type)) %>% 
  # generate plot
  iso_plot_continuous_flow_data(
    # select data and aesthetics
    data = c(44), color = label, panel = NULL,
    # peak labels for the analyte peak
    peak_label = iso_format(id1, rt, d13C, signif = 3),
    peak_label_options = list(size = 3, nudge_x = 50),
    peak_label_filter = compound == "CO2 analyte"
  ) 
#> Info: applying file filter, keeping 3 of 118 files
#> Info: mutating file info for 3 data file(s)

Reference peaks (*)

Visualize the reference peaks. It looks like the sample at seq_nr=66 has an abnormously high r46/44 difference between the two reference peaks (>0.5 permil). However, it is stable for r45/44 so will likely be okay for d13C. Nevertheless, we’ll flag it as potentially problematic to keep an eye on the sample in the final data.

iso_files %>% 
  # get all peaks
  iso_get_peak_table(include_file_info = c(seq_nr, analysis, type), quiet = TRUE) %>% 
  # focus on reference peaks only and add reference info
  filter(!is.na(ref_nr)) %>% 
  mutate(ref_info = paste0(ref_nr, ifelse(is_ref == 1, "*", ""))) %>% 
  # visualize
  iso_plot_ref_peaks(
    # specify the ratios to visualize
    x = seq_nr, ratio = c(`r45/44`, `r46/44`), fill = ref_info,
    panel_scales = "fixed"
  ) %>% 
  # mark ranges & outliers
  iso_mark_x_range(condition = type == "sample", fill = "peru", alpha = 0.2) %>% 
  iso_mark_value_range(plus_minus_value = 0.25) %>% 
  iso_mark_outliers(plus_minus_value = 0.25, label = iso_format(seq_nr)) +
  # add labels
  labs(x = "Sequence #", fill = "Reference\npeak")


iso_files <- iso_files %>% 
  iso_mutate_file_info(note = ifelse(seq_nr == 66, "ref peaks deviate > 0.5 permil in r46/44", ""))
#> Info: mutating file info for 118 data file(s)

Inspect data

Fetch peak table (*)

peak_table <- iso_files %>% 
  # whole peak table
  iso_get_peak_table(include_file_info = everything()) %>% 
  # focus on analyte peak only
  filter(compound == "CO2 analyte") %>% 
  # calculate 13C mean, sd and deviation from mean within each type
  iso_mutate_peak_table(
    group_by = type,
    d13C_mean = mean(d13C),
    d13C_sd = sd(d13C),
    d13C_dev = d13C - d13C_mean
  )
#> Info: aggregating peak table from 118 data file(s), including file info 'everything()'
#> Info: mutating peak table grouped by 'type', column(s) 'd13C_mean', 'd13C_sd', 'd13C_dev' added.

First look

peak_table %>% 
  # visualize with convenience function iso_plot_data
  iso_plot_data(
    # choose x and y (multiple y possible)
    x = seq_nr, y = c(area44, d13C),
    # choose other aesthetics
    color = type, size = 3, 
    # add label (optionally, for interactive plot)
    label = c(info = sprintf("%s (%d)", id1, analysis)),
    # decide what geoms to include
    points = TRUE
  ) 

Optionally - use interactive plot

# optinally, use an interactive plot to explore your data
# - make sure you install the plotly library --> install.packages("plotly")
# - switch to eval=TRUE in the options of this chunk to include in knit
# - this should work for all plots in this example processing file
library(plotly)
ggplotly(dynamicTicks = TRUE)

Standards variation

Examine the variation in each of the standards.

peak_table %>% 
  # everything but the sample
  filter(type != "sample") %>% 
  # generate plot
  iso_plot_data(x = mass, y = d13C, color = type, size = 3, points = TRUE, panel = type ~ .) %>% 
  # mark +/- 1, 2, 3 std. deviation value ranges
  iso_mark_value_range(plus_minus_sd = c(1,2,3)) %>% 
  # mark outliers (those outside the 3 sigma range)
  iso_mark_outliers(plus_minus_sd = 3, label = analysis)

Identify outliers (*)

Analysis #19691 is more than 3 standard deviations outside the scale2 standard mean and therefore explicitly flagged as an is_outlier.

# mark outlier
peak_table <- peak_table %>% 
  iso_mutate_peak_table(is_outlier = analysis %in% c(19691))
#> Info: mutating peak table, column(s) 'is_outlier' added.

Calibrate data

Add calibration information (*)

# this information is often maintained in a csv or Excel file instead
# but generated here from scratch for demonstration purposes
standards <- 
  tibble::tribble(
    ~id1,    ~true_d13C, ~true_percent_C,
    "acn1",  -29.53,     71.09,
    "act1",  -29.53,     71.09,
    "pugel", -12.6,      44.02,
    "EDTA2", -40.38,     41.09
  ) %>% 
  mutate(
    # add units
    true_d13C = iso_double_with_units(true_d13C, "permil")
  )

# printout standards table
standards %>% iso_make_units_explicit() %>% knitr::kable(digits = 2)
id1 true_d13C [permil] true_percent_C
acn1 -29.53 71.09
act1 -29.53 71.09
pugel -12.60 44.02
EDTA2 -40.38 41.09

# add standards
peak_table_w_standards <- 
  peak_table %>% 
  iso_add_standards(stds = standards, match_by = "id1") %>% 
  iso_mutate_peak_table(mass_C = mass * true_percent_C/100)
#> Info: matching standards by 'id1' - added 4 standard entries to 40 out of 118 rows, added new column 'is_std_peak' to identify standard peaks
#> Info: mutating peak table, column(s) 'mass_C' added.

Temporal drift

Drift plot

Look at changes in the drift standard over the course of the run:

peak_table_w_standards %>% 
  filter(type == "drift") %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    # alternatively could use x = seq_nr, or x = analysis
    x = file_datetime, y = d13C, size = area44,
    points = TRUE, date_breaks = "2 hours",
    # add some potential calibration model lines
    geom_smooth(method = "lm", color = "red", se = FALSE),
    geom_smooth(method = "loess", color = "blue", se = FALSE)
  ) %>% 
  # mark the total value range
  iso_mark_value_range()
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

Drift regression

This looks like random scatter rather than any systematic drift but let’s check with a linear regression to confirm:

calib_drift <- 
  peak_table_w_standards %>%
  # prepare for calibration
  iso_prepare_for_calibration() %>% 
  # run different calibrations
  iso_generate_calibration(
    # provide a calibration name
    calibration = "drift", 
    # provide different regression models to test if there is any
    # systematic pattern in d13C_dev (deviation from the mean)
    model = c(
      lm(d13C_dev ~ 1), 
      lm(d13C_dev ~ file_datetime),
      loess(d13C_dev ~ file_datetime, span = 0.5)
    ),
    # specify which data points to use in the calibration
    use_in_calib = is_std_peak & type == "drift" & !is_outlier
  ) %>% 
  # remove problematic calibrations if there are any
  iso_remove_problematic_calibrations()
#> Info: preparing data for calibration by nesting the entire dataset
#> Info: generating 'drift' calibration based on 3 models ('lm(d13C_dev ~ 1)', 'lm(d13C_dev ~ file_datetime)', 'loess(d13C_dev ~ file_datetime, span = 0.5)') for 1 data group(s) with standards filter 'is_std_peak & type == "drift" & !is_outlier'. Storing residuals in new column 'drift_resid'. Storing calibration info in new column 'drift_in_calib'.
#> Info: there are no problematic calibrations

# visualize residuals
calib_drift %>% iso_plot_residuals(x = file_datetime, date_breaks = "3 hours") 
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

Although a local polynomial (loess) correction would improve the overall variation in the residuals, this improvement is minor (<0.01 permil) and it is not clear that this correction addresses any systemic trend. Therefore, no drift correction is applied.

Linearity

Linearity plot

Look at the response of the linearity standard and the range the samples are in:

peak_table_w_standards %>% 
  filter(type %in% c("linearity", "sample")) %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = area44, y = d13C, panel = type ~ ., color = type, points = TRUE,
    # add a trendline to the linearity panel highlighting the variation
    geom_smooth(data = function(df) filter(df, type == "linearity"), method = "lm")
  ) 
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

Linearity regression (*)

The linearity standard shows a systematic area-dependent effect on the measured isotopic composition that is likely to have a small effect on the sample isotopic compositions. In runs that include two isotopically different standards (2 point scale calibration) both across the entire linearity range, isotopic offset, discrimination, and linearity can all be evaluated in one joint multi-variate regression. However, this run included only one linearity standard which can be used to correct for linearity prior to offset and discrimination corrections.

# run a set of regressions to evaluate linearity
calib_linearity <- 
  peak_table_w_standards %>%
  # prepare for calibration
  iso_prepare_for_calibration() %>% 
  # run different calibrations
  iso_generate_calibration(
    calibration = "lin",
    # again evaluating different regression models of the deviation from the mean
    model = c(
      lm(d13C_dev ~ 1),
      lm(d13C_dev ~ area44), 
      lm(d13C_dev ~ sqrt(area44)), 
      lm(d13C_dev ~ I(1/area44))
    ),
    use_in_calib = is_std_peak & type == "linearity" & !is_outlier
  ) %>% 
  # remove problematic calibrations if there are any
  iso_remove_problematic_calibrations()
#> Info: preparing data for calibration by nesting the entire dataset
#> Info: generating 'lin' calibration based on 4 models ('lm(d13C_dev ~ 1)', 'lm(d13C_dev ~ area44)', 'lm(d13C_dev ~ sqrt(area44))', 'lm(d13C_dev ~ I(1/area44))') for 1 data group(s) with standards filter 'is_std_peak & type == "linearity" & !is_outlier'. Storing residuals in new column 'lin_resid'. Storing calibration info in new column 'lin_in_calib'.
#> Info: there are no problematic calibrations
# visualizing residuals
calib_linearity %>% iso_plot_residuals(x = area44)
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

# show calibration coefficients
calib_linearity %>% iso_plot_calibration_parameters()

It is clear that there is a small (~0.02 permil improvement in the residual) but significant (p < 0.05) linearity effect that could be reasonably corrected with any of the assessed area dependences. However, we will use the ~ area44 correction because it explains more of the variation in the signal range that the samples fall into (~ 100-250 Vs) as can be seen in the residuals plot.

Apply linearity calibration (*)

# apply calibration
calib_linearity_applied <- 
  calib_linearity %>% 
  # decide which calibration to apply
  filter(lin_calib == "lm(d13C_dev ~ area44)") %>% 
  # apply calibration indication what should be calcculated
  iso_apply_calibration(predict = d13C_dev) %>% 
  # evaluate calibration range across area44
  iso_evaluate_calibration_range(area44)
#> Info: applying 'lin' calibration to infer 'd13C_dev' for 1 data group(s) in 1 model(s); storing resulting value in new column 'd13C_dev_pred'. This may take a moment... finished.
#> Info: evaluating range for terms 'area44' in 'lin' calibration for 1 data group(s) in 1 model(s); storing resulting summary for each data entry in new column 'lin_in_range'.

# show linearity correction range
calib_linearity_applied %>%
  iso_get_calibration_range() %>%
  knitr::kable(d = 2)
#> Info: retrieving all calibration range information for 'lin' calibration
lin_calib lin_calib_points term units min max
lm(d13C_dev ~ area44) 10 area44 Vs 33.74 381.76

# fetch peak table from applied calibration
peak_table_lin_corr <- 
  calib_linearity_applied %>% 
  iso_get_calibration_data() %>% 
  # calculate the corrected d13C value
  mutate(d13C_lin_corr = d13C - d13C_dev_pred)
#> Info: retrieving all data

Check calibration results

Check the improvement in standard deviation of the linearity standard:

peak_table_lin_corr %>% 
  filter(type == "linearity") %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    area44, c(d13C, d13C_lin_corr), color = variable, panel = NULL, points = TRUE
  ) %>% 
  # show standard deviation range
  iso_mark_value_range(mean = FALSE, plus_minus_sd = 1)

Isotopic scaling

Scale plot

Look at the linearity corrected isotopic measurement of the two discrimnation standardds relative to their known isotopic value:

peak_table_lin_corr %>% 
  filter(type %in% c("scale1", "scale2")) %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = true_d13C, y = d13C_lin_corr, color = id1, 
    points = TRUE,
    # add 1:1 slope for a visual check on scaling and offset
    geom_abline(slope = 1, intercept = 0) 
  ) 

Scale regression (*)

Evaluate regression models for isotopic scale contraction (discrimination) and offset:

# run a set of regressions to evaluate linearity
calib_scale <- 
  peak_table_lin_corr %>%
  # prepare for calibration
  iso_prepare_for_calibration() %>% 
  # run different calibrations
  iso_generate_calibration(
    calibration = "scale",
    model = lm(d13C_lin_corr ~ true_d13C),
    use_in_calib = is_std_peak & type %in% c("scale1", "scale2") & !is_outlier
  ) %>% 
  # remove problematic calibrations if there are any
  iso_remove_problematic_calibrations()
#> Info: preparing data for calibration by nesting the entire dataset
#> Info: generating 'scale' calibration based on 1 model ('lm(d13C_lin_corr ~ true_d13C)') for 1 data group(s) with standards filter 'is_std_peak & type %in% c("scale1", "scale2") & !is_outlier'. Storing residuals in new column 'scale_resid'. Storing calibration info in new column 'scale_in_calib'.
#> Info: there are no problematic calibrations
# visualizing residuals
calib_scale %>% 
  iso_plot_residuals(x = true_d13C, shape = id1, size = area44, trendlines = FALSE)

# show calibration coefficients
calib_scale %>% 
  iso_plot_calibration_parameters() + 
  theme_bw() # reset theme for horizontal x axis labels

Apply scale calibration (*)

# apply calibration
calib_scale_applied <- 
  calib_scale %>% 
  # decide which calibration to apply
  filter(scale_calib == "lm(d13C_lin_corr ~ true_d13C)") %>% 
  # apply calibration indicating what should be calculated
  iso_apply_calibration(predict = true_d13C) %>% 
  # evaluate calibration range
  iso_evaluate_calibration_range(true_d13C_pred)
#> Info: applying 'scale' calibration to infer 'true_d13C' for 1 data group(s) in 1 model(s); storing resulting value in new column 'true_d13C_pred'. This may take a moment... finished.
#> Info: evaluating range for terms 'true_d13C_pred' in 'scale' calibration for 1 data group(s) in 1 model(s); storing resulting summary for each data entry in new column 'scale_in_range'.

# show scale range
calib_scale_applied %>%
  iso_get_calibration_range() %>% 
  knitr::kable(d = 2)
#> Info: retrieving all calibration range information for 'scale' calibration
scale_calib scale_calib_points term units min max
lm(d13C_lin_corr ~ true_d13C) 15 true_d13C_pred permil -40.45 -12.56

# get calibrated data
peak_table_lin_scale_corr <- 
  calib_scale_applied %>% 
  iso_get_calibration_data()
#> Info: retrieving all data

Check calibration results

# check the overal calibration results by visualizing 
# all analytes with known isotopic composition
peak_table_lin_scale_corr %>% 
  filter(!is.na(true_d13C)) %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = c(`known d13C` = true_d13C), 
    y = c(`measured d13C` = true_d13C_pred), 
    color = id1, size = area44,
    points = TRUE, shape = is_outlier,
    # add the expected 1:1 line
    geom_abline(slope = 1, intercept = 0) 
  )

Carbon percent

Mass plot

Check how well signal intensity varies with the amount of carbon for all standards

# visualize the linearity standard's signal intensity vs. amount of carbon
peak_table_lin_scale_corr %>% 
  filter(!is.na(mass_C)) %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = mass_C, y = area44, color = type, points = TRUE,
    # add overall linear regression fit to visualize
    geom_smooth(method = "lm", mapping = aes(color = NULL))
  )
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

Mass regression (*)

Calibrate the amount of C using the linearity standard

# run a set of regressions to evaluate linearity
calib_mass_C <- 
  peak_table_lin_scale_corr %>%
  # prepare for calibration
  iso_prepare_for_calibration() %>% 
  # run different calibrations
  iso_generate_calibration(
    calibration = "mass",
    model = lm(mass_C ~ area44),
    use_in_calib = is_std_peak & type == "linearity" & !is_outlier
  ) %>% 
  # remove problematic calibrations if there are any
  iso_remove_problematic_calibrations()
#> Info: preparing data for calibration by nesting the entire dataset
#> Info: generating 'mass' calibration based on 1 model ('lm(mass_C ~ area44)') for 1 data group(s) with standards filter 'is_std_peak & type == "linearity" & !is_outlier'. Storing residuals in new column 'mass_resid'. Storing calibration info in new column 'mass_in_calib'.
#> Info: there are no problematic calibrations
# visualizing residuals
calib_mass_C %>% 
  iso_plot_residuals(x = area44, color = type, trendlines = FALSE) 

# show calibration coefficients
calib_mass_C %>% 
  iso_plot_calibration_parameters() + 
  theme_bw() # reset theme for horizontal x axis labels

Apply mass calibration (*)

# apply calibration
calib_mass_C_applied <- 
  calib_mass_C %>% 
  # decide which calibration to apply
  filter(mass_calib == "lm(mass_C ~ area44)") %>% 
  # apply calibration to predict mass_C (creating new mass_C_pred column)
  # since it's a single step calibration, also calculate the error
  iso_apply_calibration(predict = mass_C, calculate_error = TRUE) %>% 
  # evaluate calibration range for the mass_C_pred column
  iso_evaluate_calibration_range(mass_C_pred)
#> Info: applying 'mass' calibration to infer 'mass_C' for 1 data group(s) in 1 model(s); storing resulting value in new column 'mass_C_pred' and estimated error in new column 'mass_C_pred_se'. This may take a moment... finished.
#> Info: evaluating range for terms 'mass_C_pred' in 'mass' calibration for 1 data group(s) in 1 model(s); storing resulting summary for each data entry in new column 'mass_in_range'.

# show scale range
calib_mass_C_applied %>%
  iso_get_calibration_range() %>% 
  knitr::kable(d = 2)
#> Info: retrieving all calibration range information for 'mass' calibration
mass_calib mass_calib_points term units min max
lm(mass_C ~ area44) 10 mass_C_pred ug 6.94 80.98

# get calibrated data
peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr <- 
  calib_mass_C_applied %>% 
  iso_get_calibration_data() %>% 
  iso_mutate_peak_table(
    # calcuilate % C and propagate error (adjust if there is also error in mass)
    percent_C = 100 * mass_C_pred / mass,
    percent_C_se = 100 * mass_C_pred_se / mass
  )
#> Info: retrieving all data
#> Info: mutating peak table, column(s) 'percent_C', 'percent_C_se' added.

Check calibration results

# check the overal calibration results by visualizing 
# all analytes with known %C  
peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr %>% 
  filter(!is.na(true_percent_C)) %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = c(`known %C` = true_percent_C),
    # define 2 y values to panel
    y = c(`measured %C` = percent_C, `measured - known %C` = percent_C - true_percent_C),
    # include regression error bars to highlight variation beyond the estimated
    y_error = c(percent_C_se, percent_C_se),
    color = type, size = area44, points = TRUE,
    # add the expected 1:1 line
    geom_abline(slope = 1, intercept = 0) 
  )

Check carbon percent drift

It looks like there is quite some variation around the known value –> check if there is temporal drift affecting the measured %C:

peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr %>% 
  filter(type == "drift") %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = file_datetime, y = c(`measured %C` = percent_C), size = area44,
    points = TRUE,
    # add some potential regression models
    geom_smooth(method = "lm", color = "red", se = FALSE),
    geom_smooth(method = "loess", color = "blue", se = FALSE)
  )
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

It does NOT look like there is a systematic drift so will not apply a correction.

Evaluate data

Isotopic Accuracy & Precision

For this run, use the linearity standard for a very conservative accuracy and precision standard.

peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr %>% 
  filter(type == "linearity") %>% 
  group_by(id1, true_d13C) %>% 
  iso_summarize_data_table(true_d13C_pred) %>% 
  mutate(
    accuracy = abs(`true_d13C_pred mean` - true_d13C),
    precision = `true_d13C_pred sd`
  ) %>% 
  select(id1, n, accuracy, precision) %>% 
  iso_make_units_explicit() %>% 
  knitr::kable(d = 3)
id1 n accuracy [permil] precision
acn1 10 0.008 0.036

%C Accuracy & Precision

Check the precision for all standards but keep in mind that the linearity standard was used for calibration. The drift standard provides the most conservative accuracy and precision estimate:

peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr %>% 
  filter(!is.na(true_percent_C)) %>% 
  group_by(type, true_percent_C) %>% 
  iso_summarize_data_table(percent_C) %>% 
  mutate(
    accuracy = abs(`percent_C mean` - true_percent_C),
    precision = `percent_C sd`
  ) %>% 
  select(type, n, accuracy, precision) %>% 
  iso_make_units_explicit() %>% 
  knitr::kable(d = 3)
type n accuracy precision
drift 14 1.625 3.445
linearity 10 0.284 2.384
scale1 3 0.409 0.877
scale2 13 0.189 1.970

Plot Data

peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr %>% 
  filter(type == "sample") %>% 
  iso_plot_data(
    x = id1, y = c(true_d13C_pred, percent_C), 
    shape = str_extract(id1, "^\\w+"),
    color = iso_format(area = lin_in_range, d13C = scale_in_range),
    points = TRUE
  ) %>% 
  iso_mark_calibration_range(calibration = "scale") +
  labs(shape = "data groups", color = "in calibration ranges")

Final

Final data processing and visualization usually depends on the type of data and the metadata available for contextualization (e.g. core depth, source organism, age, etc.). The relevant metadata can be added easily with iso_add_file_info() during the initial data load / file info procesing. Alternatively, just call iso_add_file_info() again at this later point or use dplyr’s left_join directly.

# @user: add final data processing and plot(s)
data_summary <- tibble()

Export

# export the calibrations with all information and data to Excel
peak_table_lin_scale_mass_corr %>% 
  iso_export_calibration_to_excel(
    filepath = format(Sys.Date(), "%Y%m%d_ea_irms_example_carbon_export.xlsx"),
    # include data summary as an additional useful tab
    `data summary` = data_summary
  )
#> Info: exporting calibrations into Excel '20210304_ea_irms_example_carbon_export.xlsx'...
#> Info: retrieving all data
#> Info: retrieving all coefficient information for 'lin' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all summary information for 'lin' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all calibration range information for 'lin' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all coefficient information for 'scale' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all summary information for 'scale' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all calibration range information for 'scale' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all coefficient information for 'mass' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all summary information for 'mass' calibration
#> Info: retrieving all calibration range information for 'mass' calibration
#> Info: export complete, created tabs 'data summary', 'all data', 'lin coefs', 'lin summary', 'lin range', 'scale coefs', 'scale summary', 'scale range', 'mass coefs', 'mass summary' and 'mass range'.